Last quote about Carbon
All quotes about Carbon
It's important to remember that there is genuine hope. This inspiring vision of change reaffirms that we still have time, provided we commit to serious, ambitious and urgent action to control our environmental impact. Every journey, however long and complicated, is easier with a clear map.
The carbon law for keeping us on track with Paris – something we can all follow – is such a valuable contribution at this critical time.
We need to act now to lower our carbon emissions by improving energy efficiency, switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy and tackling climate change head on.
Our iconic black cabs are famous across the world. The London Taxi Company's impressive new factory and R&D facility showcases the innovation that makes the UK a world leader in the development of new automotive technologies. Through our ambitious industrial strategy, we are committed to building on our strengths and taking advantage of the opportunities the new low-carbon economy provides.
We didn't have the presence of mind to think to get out of the house. All I got out was our address. I said, I can't breathe' and kept repeating our address.
When he stood up he realized something was wrong. He realized he was fuzzy and not right also. My husband went and looked to see if our children were home. But I couldn't stand up. I was thinking in my head I was having a heart attack. I slid down on my side down the stairs and he had gotten my cellphone to call our children to find out where they were.
We usually sleep with our door closed and right before we went to sleep she was outside our door meowing which is very unusual. So I thought, Oh I'll just let her in.' She wasn't feeling well. She sensed something was wrong before that I guess.
Adani's coalmine will be the most dangerous in our history, ramping up global carbon pollution precisely when emissions need to be drastically cut.
Now that we've done this once, we feel we can improve in every single area of the event itself, whether it's the way we choose to approach Cape Horn or the reduction of our overall carbon footprint.
Trump was elected by people who felt disenfranchised by the governing elite in a revolt against globalization. His priority will be to satisfy his electorate, who are neither liberal nor that well-informed. We have already seen this in the promise to build a wall along the Mexican border and the sanctioning of two oil pipelines and the appointment to the Environmental Protection Agency of Scott Pruitt, a man who does not believe carbon dioxide causes climate change.
She's an awesome kid. I wish I could carbon copy and continue to produce her year after year after year.
Mileage standards save consumers money at the gas pump, make Americans less dependent on oil, reduce carbon pollution and advance innovation.
This change makes no sense. Mileage standards save consumers money at the gas pump, make Americans less dependent on oil, reduce carbon pollution and advance innovation. The current standards helped the auto companies move from bankruptcy to profitability, and there is no reason they cannot be met.
This change makes no sense. Mileage standards save consumers money at the gas pump, make Americans less dependent on oil, reduce carbon pollution and advance innovation.
I have not been a supporter of carbon taxes in the past, and I don't think I would be inclined to as we move into the future.
Dwarfing appears to be a common evolutionary response of some mammals during past global warming events, and the extent of dwarfing seems related to the magnitude of the event. Abrupt perturbations of the global carbon cycle during the early Eocene are associated with rapid global warming events, which are analogous in many ways to present greenhouse warming.
It's not enough to pull the excess that's in the atmosphere at that time – we'd also have to pull out what went into the oceans. If we want to undo this, we would have to artificially pull out all of the cumulative emissions since preindustrial times.
Over the last decade, a more average rate [of increase] is about 2.4 parts per million per year. So record-high CO2 emissions, even though they stay flat, translates directly into a record-high CO2 increase [in the atmosphere. If we then proceeded by technical means – by some invention or some chemical engineering development – to pull CO2 out of the atmosphere and bury it, then the additional CO2 that's in the oceans will come back into the atmosphere.
Our future is low-carbon, clean and efficient. Our programme to reduce our burden on the National Grid doesn't end here: we seek continual improvements, both in how we can reduce energy consumption further and how to minimise our carbon emissions.
In a decarbonising world, there is no place for LNG as more than a short-term transition marine fuel, and it will need to be replaced by genuine low carbon fuels.
Markers that have been put down in the last year are significant and markets are already adjusting to those markers and the extent to which the draft report to FSB is adopted or not, we are of the view that a transition is under way to a lower-carbon world and that has implications on the risks that Apra-regulated entities need to oversee. Hence we expect them to be having a conversation about it.
We're still churning through our carbon budget pretty quickly and, if you run a trend line from when we made our Paris commitment, we're still way over and getting further and further behind. The only thing that's keeping us in the ballgame at all is our renewable energy generation. This makes sense when there's no other feasible carbon policy on the table at the moment. ERF [the emissions reduction fund] isn't doing it. Direct Action more broadly isn't going anywhere near it ….
It means that our soils simply lack the available nutrients that would let trees take advantage of the extra CO2 they find in the air.
The world pays a lot of attention to climate change modelling, including predictions on the amount of carbon that will be stored in trees. These reports are based on models and data taken largely from temperate forests where nutrients are in adequate supply, meaning that estimates on carbon absorption do not account for nutrient shortages on forest productivity. Australia's soils are very old and weathered by millions of years of sun and rain, meaning soils are very low in nutrients, and most of the available nutrients are tied up inside wood, leaves and roots.
We need to look at the evidence – it may not be that an EIS is what the [Finkel] review comes up with. However, I would urge the prime minister to look at the evidence that is produced by the review and to take heed of the review.
In agriculture it's absolutely devastating – we have businesses that rely on secure, reliable and affordable electricity to conduct cool stores that store fruit, for example, that run their milking machines for their cows, that run irrigation pumps for their fruit and their vegetables. Initially when [the federal government] announced their review we were delighted that everything was put on the table.
A Chinese car manufacturer recently launched a carbon-independent vehicle covered in solar panels. There's a lot of growth potential in this area, though [that growth] is probably 10 years away.
The first step to back up that commitment is to stop expanding the carbon fuel economy. We're not talking small projects, we're talking about opening up one of the largest offshore oil bases in Norway, or a new gas field in PNG. I think it's definitely become a lot harder for banks to fund coal because it's so clearly connected to climate change and other environmental and social issues.
EPA's clean car standards are driving unprecedented reductions in carbon pollution and saving drivers money at the pump. Strong standards have been a critical factor in the auto industry's recovery from financial distress, so it makes no sense to reverse this progress.
Climate change is happening but we are not leaving the Maldives to the waves. We are going nowhere. The dream [of making the Maldives carbon neutral] is over. We are looking to be a low-carbon country.
We had good brakes on Tuesday and we had good brakes today but yesterday that was one of our problems. We weren't consistent with the brakes so we had to put another set of brakes on. I would say it throws the driver off his focus when the brake doesn't work consistent, he's like 'oh is it coming back?
No with the other one we haven't tested enough yet to know whether they are consistent or not. We had a test last year but we haven't come to a conclusion and we still need to test them for this year because we were late with the sign off, so they have to use new brakes because the discs are thicker, so we haven't got them yet.
We are not completely done with the brakes. With the brakes our biggest problem is our inconsistency, again, we have sometimes a brake which we are really happy with and the drivers are really happy with and then we get a set which we are not happy with. You lose a lot of time because it's not only to change it, the driver loses the confidence and then when you put the next one on he needs to get into a state again that he's confident with what he gets. So we are not done with it yet.
We just don't know exactly when. Or which race we put them on.
We will continue to pursue low, stable and predictable inflation amid the structural shift to a lower-carbon economy. But the more profound structural changes that will be taking place are likely to have important consequences for both aggregate supply and demand, which we will need to consider carefully as we conduct monetary policy. In the short run, they may be viewed as a downside risk to economic activity in Canada, which we would take into account in our risk management framework for monetary policy.
Cheap gas has traditionally fuelled Australia's energy competitiveness and powered downstream manufacturing for decades. Going forward it should be providing abundant and cost-effective carbon reductions as Australia moves to a cleaner energy future.
New York is a national leader in clean energy, and the tremendous growth of the solar industry across this state demonstrates this renewal technology's increased accessibility and affordability for residents and businesses. Our investments in this clean energy resource create jobs, reduce carbon emissions, support economic growth, and help build a cleaner, greener New York for all.
This is the first experiment to investigate the long-term effects of warming in aquatic ecosystems. Given the substantial contribution small ponds make to the emission of greenhouse gases, it is vital to understand how they might respond to global warming. Our findings show that warming can fundamentally alter the carbon balance of small ponds over a number of years, reducing their capacity to absorb carbon dioxide and increasing emissions of methane.
Existing green projects such as solar will enjoy the much needed premium (as they are not taxed).
Staying in the EU ETS sounds a lot like being half in and half out, which May seemed to be ruling out as a principle.
I don't think it will have a future in the EU ETS after the UK leaves (Europe). Were the UK to be part of a system over which it could have no influence. I think that would be very difficult.
Wind energy is now a mainstream and essential part of Europe's electricity supply. It is also a mature and significant industry in its own right, now providing 330,000 jobs and billions of euros of European exports. With all the talk about the transition to low-carbon, things should be looking good long-term for the wind industry in Europe. But they're not. Government policy on energy across Europe is less clear and ambitious than it was a few years ago. Only 7 out of 28 EU Member States have targets and policies in place for renewables beyond 2020.
The climate problem is not going away. It will only get worse. To be blunt, in this political environment I don't think this moves unless it has White House support.
We have nothing to announce on that.
Now that the GOP can repeal all the anti-energy, anti-job regs--the Left offers to trade those regs for a carbon tax. Nice try. No.
The European Union is now focused on getting the global scheme up and running. We are serious about achieving carbon neutral growth for aviation worldwide, and we will provide technical support to make it happen.
To encourage innovations like this, we would need more state backing, just as we have seen in the renewables space. These technologies are hard to develop and scale.
Carbon capture technology may have the single biggest impact on emissions reduction. But for it to be widely used, it's very important that the technology be cost-effective. The next wave of innovation will reduce the cost further, perhaps even by half, to the point where it's almost equivalent to or less than the emissions tax. Then, it would make more sense to capture the carbon than to emit it.
There appears to be a desire to justify business-as-usual at some companies, which does not constitute sound risk management.
Oil majors already do scenario analysis but, as Exxon previously indicated, they do not assign sufficient probability to a rapid (low-carbon) transition.
The World Bank has pledged to help countries adopt a low-carbon development path, specifically by phasing out fossil fuel subsidies and promoting a carbon tax. However, the bank's policy lending does the opposite, by introducing tax breaks for coal power plants and coal export infrastructure.
The actual implications of change in U.S. policy are unlikely to be a big game changer. The U.S. has played an enormous leadership role together with China in galvanizing international support (for action on climate change) .... Much of that improvement in the outlook for carbon emissions isn't happening in America. Improvements within America are due to energy efficiency ... which are still quite valued in an economy that encourages growth and competitiveness.
To begin with, the whole push for renewable energy is being driven by the wrong motivation, the mistaken belief that global climate change is being caused by carbon emissions. If you don't buy that – and I don't – then what we have is really just an expensive way of making the tree-huggers feel good about themselves.
With CARB's logic, or illogic, it could raise myriad revenue limited only by its own creativity.
This case represents a direct assault on that leadership.
Our national interest would be served only if this project does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution. America is now a global leader when it comes to taking serious action to fight climate change. And frankly, approving this project would have undercut that global leadership.
All [Trudeau's] policies on corporate tax, carbon tax, tax this, tax that, are completely out of sync with the U.S.. He should have used the Trump election to basically pivot. He didn't do that.
For a jurisdiction as large as California, that's not small potatoes. This lawsuit strikes at the heart of how this program is operated.
The Department (BEIS) must learn lessons from this experience if it is to stand any chance of ensuring the first CCS plants are built in the near future.
Taxpayers will be alarmed that disagreement between departments means the taxpayers have little to show for the 100 million pounds the government spent.
The government will have to work hard to restore investor confidence in carbon capture and storage, or come up with cost-effective alternatives to meet the UK's decarbonisation target.
We truly advocated an all-of-the-above strategy, reducing carbon emissions not just through development of cleaner fossil fuels, but through the development of renewable sources too.
I see very much a bottom up approach to carbon pricing.
We need to implement a carbon price, let's say tomorrow and maybe even escalate it a little to show a strong signal for people that it will be done properly.
That's pretty unusual, but what's going on is this a long-term underlying trend that's driven mainly by greenhouse gases and the fact that carbon dioxide is continuing to increase.
2016 was an extreme year for the global climate and stands out as the hottest year on record. But temperatures only tell part of the story. Long-term indicators of human-caused climate change reached new heights in 2016. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations surged to new records. Both contribute to climate change.
It means that we have to pivot, we have to be competitive. While he's lowering taxes, we're raising them. While he's eliminating carbon taxation, we're making it even more expensive to operate a business here.
We need a more flexible energy system so that we can make the transition to a lower carbon future. A more flexible system will also ensure customers get the most out of new smart technologies.
This should answer the critics who have repeated Big Oil's polemic that renewable biofuels somehow increase carbon emissions.
We need a more flexible energy system so that we can make the transition to a lower carbon future. Having a legally separate system operator will allow it to take on a more proactive role in managing the system and working with others, while mitigating any conflicts of interest.
One of the big surprises for many people is the high-carbon intensity of the electricity production in Germany because that's the country where renewable energy has been promoted most. They've lead the solar energy revolution by investing a lot.
I remain convinced that no country is better suited to confront the climate challenge and reap the economic benefits of a low-carbon future than the United States.
Despite the policy uncertainty that we face, I remain convinced that no country is better suited to confront the climate challenge and reap the economic benefits of a low-carbon future than the United States. President-elect Donald Trump will have the opportunity to do so. The latest science and economics provide a helpful guide for what the future may bring.
We actually tag every single product that comes on the site. If they want it to be fair trade, and vegan, and a carbon-neutral company.
Cigarette smoking releases nicotine and other harmful or potentially harmful substances, such as nitrogen oxide, polycarbonate, and carbon monoxide, some of which cross the placenta. Some of these trans-placental substances may affect foetal programming of the kidney during pregnancy.
That is probably not a good sign.
And here comes Donald Trump, who has flipped over this card table, along with many others. And we just don't know what he is going to do.
Party platforms are written by party elites, and they often don't represent their full constituencies.
That is a greater increase than seen in any other group the researchers surveyed.
It could mean a significant weakening of the climate change regulations and initiatives during the Obama administration that have started us on the path toward lowering our carbon emissions.
The order (to withdraw the plan) should explain that it is the administration's view that the (Clean Power Plan) is unlawful and that EPA lacks authority to enforce it. The executive order is necessary to send an immediate and strong message to States and regulated entities that the administration will not enforce the rule.
It will result in providing a sustainable solution – reducing the carbon footprint while enriching the lives of people in various communities here in Abu Dhabi.
Because of the implications for air quality and carbon emissions, coal has come under fire in recent years, but it is too early to say that this is the end for coal. Coal demand is moving to Asia, where emerging economies with growing populations are seeking affordable and secure energy sources to power their economies.
Let's not be naive as Canadians. This is our No.1, not just trading partner, but competitor ... we need to be competitive with them.
(This) will both protect our economy and protect the environment at the same time.
Reality has a way of intruding. Whatever uncertainty exists around the near-term policy choices of the next president, I am absolutely confident the United States will continue making progress on this path to a low-carbon future. And that's because many of the trends I've mentioned have taken hold and are no longer dependent on government initiatives. They are market-drive, they are common sense.
If the United States is reading between the lines, this is Canada trying to get more market share of the clean tech sector globally.
We are dealing with another example of clinical anti-Russian feeling. It's a carbon copy of a scheme used in the Cold War.
Whatever happens, it needs to be a market-based mechanism that puts a price on carbon.
Australia's climate policy is quite unorganized and there is no certainty for power generators on investment or divestment.
There is some data about what car sharing means. Household carbon emissions can be reduced by 37% through car-sharing and we know for example that there are 3.7 trillion pounds worth of idle resources in the world. So we have some idea about the kind of social and environmental impact this is creating, but actually in terms of putting a number on that social and environmental value is something that we need to do responsibly.
We are moving forward.
In the past we didn't do this. The only thing we did was put a shadow price for carbon in them ... now we have to take it one step further.
Shell's proposed updates fall short. The inclusion of a greenhouse gas target cannot disguise the fact this policy broadly reinforces business as usual -- an unsustainable outlook that could put shareholder value at risk. Reducing operational emissions plays a very limited role in ensuring portfolio resilience under low carbon, low demand scenarios. It also does not address the risk of stranded assets.
If you make new investment decisions that you have to live with for the next 30 or 40 years, why don't we screen these for long-term carbon intensity? In the past we didn't do this. The only thing we did was put a shadow price for carbon in them ... now we have to take it one step further.
Lowering the carbon intensity of assets is the right thing to do, making them future-proof.
Most of them are focused on securing servers and employee systems and are often afraid of putting security software on specialized machines. In fact, some vendors say the warranties are voided if security software is installed. This puts the municipalities in a very tough spot.
There should be controls in place to segregate networks in such a way that these machines aren't connected with those that could infect them.
Paying a ransom often leads to prolonged or repeated attacks. A better strategy is to turn the economic tables on attackers by making the business a more difficult target through strong security posture.
Only by automating a lot this technology can you actually improve your risk management of these types of attacks.
Each US$10 fall costs us US$5 billion in cash a year. The fact that over the coming few decades we are transitioning, in a more or less ordered way, to a low-carbon society is less draconian than what we've seen over the past two years.
The fact that over the coming few decades we are transitioning, in a more or less ordered way, to a low-carbon society is less draconian than what we've seen over the past two years.
Metallurgical (coking) coal is attractive long term. Because of uncertainty around carbon prices, because of uncertainties around climate change, we're not going to buy or develop new energy (thermal) coal.
There are a lot of policy uncertainties. A few months ago when the government was thinking about a carbon floor price on coal and gas-fired power plants, some operators told us they will shut down if the plan went ahead.
The Church of England… has a campaign which is called Shrinking the Footprint, and it's a very ambitious campaign to reduce carbon emissions throughout the Church by 80 percent by 2050.
From a green perspective, it'll save them about 16 tonnes of carbon dioxide … per annum.
This is part of making history. This project will help lessen the carbon footprint of the world. Living on an island, you experience global warming firsthand. Beach erosions and other noticeable changes are a part of life here. It's a serious problem, and this project will hopefully set a good example for everyone else to follow.
The real economy is actually moving faster than governments at this moment. So we can assume, we can hope there will be lots of over-achievements that we can then harvest and lots of excitement around the world to do more on the low carbon economy. So definitely we are talking towards the same goals but the question is that governments still need to speed up because this transition that is required is huge.
There are risks of moving too quickly, moving too aggressively into this new space and finding that oil prices might come back, profitability from oil and gas starts to return. But on the flip side, there's a risk that companies could move too slowly and the market could change. We do see zero-carbon fuels growing around three percent a year on average over the next 20 years, as opposed to oil.
Now I think from a carbon perspective, China – especially with President-Elect Trump coming into the mix – has an opportunity to almost take that baton of leadership here. It's a huge growing market. We do see coal demand in China in particular has already peaked and will continue to decline over the next 20 years.
So the majors are under pressure to articulate some sort of response to this challenge of a lower carbon world and to de-risk their legacy operations.
Regardless of what happens with U.S. support of the Paris Agreement, we do think these trends towards a lower carbon world are more or less baked into the mix. It's not really a matter of if; it's a matter of when, what magnitude and what regions it happens (in) first.
We see global energy trends are changing. Sixty percent of global energy demand growth of the next 20 years will come from gas, or other zero-carbon fuels such as wind or solar energy. So the oil majors are under pressure to articulate some sort of response to this challenge of a lower-carbon world to de-risk the legacy operations.
It is critical we do not reach the tipping point that will see peatlands stop sinking carbon and start spewing it into the atmosphere, destroying any hope we have of controlling climate change.
We are currently capturing about 10,000 tons of CO2 a year. This is about 25 percent of the CO2 emissions from the power plant. We doubled the capacity this year, and we are taking it in stages … We'll see how far we get in the next years.
This is about 25 percent of the CO2 emissions from the power plant. We doubled the capacity this year, and we are taking it in stages … We'll see how far we get in the next years.
We actually capture the CO2 at the power plant, dissolve it in water and inject it as sort of mineral water back into the ground.
The U.K. is ratifying the historic Paris Agreement so that we can help to accelerate global action on climate change and deliver on our commitments to create a safer, more prosperous future for us all. We are going to use this positive momentum to grow the U.K. low-carbon sector, which is already worth over 46 billion pounds, as we continue to provide secure, affordable and clean energy to our families and businesses.
It is vital that the business community demonstrates its ongoing commitment to tackling climate change. This is an important moment in global political and economic history, and we absolutely must come together to solve the immense challenges facing the planet. Climate change, water scarcity and deforestation are serious threats to society. It is imperative that global businesses, like Mars, do their part to face down those threats.
The Paris Agreement was a vital step forward, but its power is in our collective action. Business and government leaders must urgently work together to drive a thriving, low-carbon economy.
I believe the main policy of the Paris agreement will be maintained ... I am rather optimistic.
It is not important whether we say we can make it in two or three years. What is more important is that we can establish a concrete plan which is not too far from now and how to implement that.
It is not appropriate just to compare shipping and aviation – they have their own operational features.
This latest milestone in Alaska's efforts to promote sustainable biofuels is especially exciting since it is uniquely sourced from the forest residuals in the Pacific Northwest. NARA's accomplishments and the investment of the U.S. Department of Agriculture provide another key in helping Alaska Airlines and the aviation industry reduce its carbon footprint and dependency on fossil fuels.
It is great news that global carbon dioxide emissions have been flat in the last three years, but it is far too early to proclaim we have reached a peak.
The continued decline of China's carbon dioxide emissions, combined with knowledge of structural change in the energy system, does indicate that carbon dioxide emissions from China may have peaked, however a few more years of data is needed to confirm this.
This could be the turning point we have hoped for. To tackle climate change those bonds must be broken and here we have the first signs that they are at least starting to loosen.
The continued decline of China's CO2 emissions, combined with knowledge of structural change in the energy system, does indicate that CO2 emissions from China may have peaked, however a few more years of data is needed to confirm this.
Worryingly, the reductions pledged by the nations under the Paris Agreement are not sufficient to achieve this.
We found out that by implementing simple measures, we can reduce the consumption of thermal energy by 42 percent and carbon dioxide emissions by 40 percent. Things like thermally insulating buildings.
Among economists, one of the most frustrating parts of the election was the fact that environmentalists didn't seem to get behind this as much as we hoped that they would.
The burden would be on those who can least afford it.
Our campaign all along said, We're going to take a swing at the ball,' and we did that. But the game is not over. Our group and other folks will look for other opportunities to try to take action.
The public wants to act on climate change, but it wants to have a policy that cuts pollution and invests in clean energy solutions.
If not for this initiative, I don't think there would be anybody nationally talking about climate change. This was one really exciting option, but there are plenty of other things we could be doing.
It sees carbon as an indicator of economic inefficiency.
If they want to make the carbon price and the green economy work, they've got to invest in places like Sarnia.
One handful of moss has the same leaf surface as a normal tree – a tree in your street, in your city. But on these leaves of the moss cultures, there are… little bacteria, and these bacteria can, once in contact… with carbon, or with particulated matter, they can convert this into their own biomass.
The global transition to a zero-carbon economy will not be held up by one man. The rest of the world will not risk a global climate catastrophe because of one man's opposition.
In terms of impact, we're pretty excited about the idea that we can have a carbon neutral source of ethanol, and this truly is carbon neutral.
(The) ethanol that we make here is exactly the same as ethanol that is distilled from corn, and is exactly the same as ethanol that you drink in vodka or beer or whatever, it's the same exact molecule.
The main benefit of this technology, if it really pans out, is going to be the fact that it's carbon neutral.
Being the Department of Energy, we're really looking at the fuel market, because this is a drop-in replacement for gasoline, for cars that are designed to run ethanol fuel at high percentages. You can actually get a very efficient combustion process, you get a very clean combustion process … Ethanol's a great fuel, and so that's the primary market we're focused on.
We don't require water to water corn crops, we don't require fertilizer which has to be made from natural gas, we don't require trucks or harvesters to carry the corn and ferment it.
The carbon tax initiative is very aggressive and other states will be watching to see how voters react to it.
Let's not underestimate the task ahead. Limiting carbon emissions and changing our energy systems is a monumental challenge. But the IEA is working with governments around the world to help identify solutions and show how it can be done.
Storage is vital if we are to get the level of renewables that are required for a low carbon future.
The global community needs to recognize the scientific evidence: keeping tropical forests intact prevents carbon emissions, and forest peoples do the job better than anyone else. The Marrakech conference presents an opportunity to act on this evidence. We need to take concrete steps toward recognizing rights, before global warming reaches the breaking point.
The main equation is how much cost do I spend for a kilogram reduction in weight. It is not about one material it is about the combination of materials.
It takes time to learn how it behaves in manufacturing, how it reacts to being bonded to other materials. This has implications for tooling, purchasing and manufacturing. We understand the complete development chain.
The material is still too expensive and for smaller segments and smaller vehicles it can be not competitive.
We will go to low carbon solutions ... it's not sure that coal power plants will remain sustainable for (the next) 30 years.
If emissions rose during a recession, if deforestation increased while the economy was contracting, we wonder what could happen when Brazil resumes economic growth.
Deforestation in the Amazon should fall to around 3,000 square kilometers per year if we want to be in a position to meet our climate commitments.
But the real elephant in the room is carbon dioxide, which remains in the atmosphere for thousands of years and in the oceans for even longer.
We don't demonize mined stones for what they are. The vast majority of our customers own natural diamonds, [but] this is an amazing alternative to mined diamonds. They are meaningful and can be grown through your own donor carbon. It's an opportunity to expand jewelry market in a unique and special way.
Addressing global issues like climate change and the transition to a sustainable and low-carbon future takes collaboration, innovation and investment.
(French outages) are having a big impact as they are driving more thermal demand at the moment ... Needing to cover that shortfall of power in the market with thermal is pushing up fuels and carbon.
Low-carbon transportation systems are therefore urgently required in the fast-growing metropolises. TUMI is making an important contribution to a global transport revolution.
Think how much carbon would be reduced if all the autos in the city were remodelled as solar autos.
It could be (used) to reduce taxes, in innovation, it could be to help farmers make sure the product they produce is less expensive.
Everyone is paying attention to this, especially in a downtime for the (farm) economy.
I want to look at the market stability reserve again. I want to look at it now. Take allowances out of it now.
Acting on HFCs does not exempt us from acting on CO2 or other important greenhouse gases like methane. We emit considerably more carbon, and it lingers in the atmosphere for more than 500 years.
The real test now is not to get through the committees, it's to get through the plenary.
Had it failed it would have been a much more challenging task for me to try and move forward.
Oil price is one thing: it's not going to make any difference to the transition to a new world order in terms of… more energy efficiency, more renewables, solar coming down in cost, wind coming down in cost, that's a progressive that's happening at the moment.
I think the fundamentals are there. So, (the) oil price makes relatively little difference to the deployment of these new technologies.
It's interesting – a lot of the talk around oil and gas price volatility… you've got to remember, fundamentally, the price of the alternatives is coming down, they're becoming more cost competitive over time.
We seem to be making the same mistake as in the carbon permits market. We are trusting the market with a decision that is political.
If the world is serious about tackling climate change, the world's energy mix in 2050 will have to look fundamentally different from the one we have today. Limiting global warming to well below 2°C, as agreed by the international community at the climate summit in Paris last year, requires close to carbon-free electricity supply and a drastic reduction of fossil fuel use in the industry, transportation and buildings sectors.
Limiting global warming to well below 2°C, as agreed by the international community at the climate summit in Paris last year, requires close to carbon-free electricity supply and a drastic reduction of fossil fuel use in the industry, transportation and buildings sectors.
We now have practical agreement and consensus on this issue backed by a large number of States who will voluntarily participate in the GMBM – and from its outset. This will permit the CORSIA to serve as a positive and sustainable contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions reduction.
There were these working groups that met, and in Montreal this past week ... everyone agreed that we needed to take other measures.
There is a lot of work to be done to regulate the quality of credits allowed in this system. You don't want credits from some person claiming that he would have cut down the tree in his backyard, but promises to not do it if you pay him.
Should there be sufficient purchasing activity I suppose prices for voluntary standards may increase.
It should be a great boost for carbon credit markets in general. I would expect pricing to respond to this increase in demand.
The results are clear: a more durable, growing economy; 15m new private-sector jobs since early 2010; rising wages, falling poverty, and the beginnings of a reversal in inequality; 20m more Americans with health insurance, while health-care costs grow at the slowest rate in 50 years; annual deficits cut by nearly three-quarters; and declining carbon emissions.
Provinces and territories that choose cap-and-trade systems will need to decrease emissions in line to both Canada's target and to the reductions expected in jurisdictions that choose a price-based system.
We're not going to shun science and we're not going to put off the inevitable.
The price will be set at a level that will assist Canada in achieving its goal for greenhouse gas emissions reductions, while allowing companies better stability and predictability.
Provinces and territories will have a choice in how they implement this pricing. They can put a direct price on carbon pollution, or they can adopt a cap-and-trade system, with the expectation that it be stringent enough to meet or exceed the federal benchmark.
There is no hiding from climate change. It is real and it is everywhere. We cannot undo the last 10 years of inaction. What we can do is make a real and honest effort - today and every day - to protect the health of our environment, and with it, the health of all Canadians.
Eighty five percent of the Canadian economy is located in provinces where there is pricing on carbon pollution in one shape or another. We are going to bring that up to 100 percent.
With regard to the federal government's proposals today, Alberta will not be supporting this proposal absent serious concurrent progress on energy infrastructure, to ensure we have the economic means to fund these policies. It is time for the Government of Canada to act on this issue.
This is going to be hard work and has to be addressed in a step by step manner. All three projects are kind of unique.
If I was a 400-pound hacker sitting on a bed, I would target Pennsylvania.
If someone with a keyboard and mouse can literally create this doubt in the process itself, that's a tremendous amount of power over a country like ours.
The paper trail is important. The voting machines are known to have vulnerabilities, or there's risk that they could be manipulated.
Between Trump and what happened at the DNC – both sides – whichever one loses is going to be crying foul.
When we can finds solutions in Oslo maybe we can help other cities.
It will be a stretch.
Integrating carbon into the financial budget is new.
This is a substantial sum but the economic returns from adopting low-carbon policies far outweigh the costs. The region can generate more than USD 2 in gains for each USD 1 of cost it bears to reach the Paris goal?if the right steps are taken.
The UK has some of the highest electricity wholesale prices in the EU and this is in large part due to the carbon price floor.
Most people don't realise that it costs less than £5 ($6.47) per person to offset the CO2 from a European flight, even with high quality Gold Standard carbon credits, and yet two thirds are willing to pay that price. This should give governments worldwide the confidence to sign up to an ambitious emissions reduction scheme from day one and set their airlines en-route to a sustainable future.
The U.S., states and cities will need to adopt more ambitious policies, and soon, to be able to fulfill our commitment under the Paris agreement. To avoid the worst consequences of climate change, the U.S. and all nations must cut emissions sooner and by more than called for under the Paris agreement. There's simply no time to lose.
The U.S., states and cities will need to adopt more ambitious policies and soon to be able to fulfill our commitment under the Paris agreement.
We are beyond the tipping point of grand energy transition. Implementing technically and economically sound, stable policies supported by clear carbon price signals will enable this transition and take us a step closer to meeting the climate aspirations agreed at COP21.
Addressing global issues like climate change and the transition to a sustainable and low-carbon future takes collaboration, innovation and investment. The expansion of our operational goals to 2020, achieving carbon neutrality, and the purchase of 100% renewable electricity build on our existing environmental commitment and responsible growth strategy. This demonstrates the measurable actions we are taking to reduce our environmental impacts.
Cutting black carbon and other super pollutants is the critical next step in our program to combat climate change. We're protecting people's lungs, their health by cutting out the poisonous chemical that comes out of diesel trucks that comes out of many sources in what is known as black carbon.
You can imagine that if we give clients a great on-demand manufacturing tool, it's not just the product that changes. It's the business that changes.
And yet, by actually taking advantage of climate change, it's contributing to the problem because the ship has a very large carbon footprint of its own.
The more big pieces we can get the better ... they could contain the carbon molecules that we want to see.
Although the impact on prices is hard to predict in a carbon-constrained world, they will undoubtedly will be lower.
The overarching idea is to achieve a carbon neutral footprint.
What is most important is that the substance of the negotiating text will allow for meaningful management of aviation's carbon footprint.
We are leading the world in carbon reductions today, and it's driven primarily by cleaner-burning, affordable natural gas that was brought to you by innovation and technological advances in the oil and natural gas industry.
The world's two largest economies and two largest emitters, our entrance into this agreement continues the momentum in Paris and to give the rest of the world confidence, either developed or developing countries. That a low carbon future is where the world is heading.
If we're to move from today's high-carbon, low-efficiency world economy to tomorrow's high-efficiency, low-carbon world economy, quite a lot needs to shift.
If you can illustrate how some of the most beautiful places on our planet are potentially jeopardized ... it makes it more concrete and more real. One of the difficulties in getting people passionate about climate change is getting them to be able to mentally picture what's at stake because you can't see carbon dioxide emissions.
(Hinkley C's) cost is competitive with other large-scale low carbon technologies. It will generate electricity steadily even on foggy and still winter days across Northern Europe. It will play a crucial role as part of a future, flexible energy system.
Governments must ratify the Paris agreement swiftly and have a responsibility to implement policies that drive better disclosure of climate risk, curb fossil fuel subsidies and put in place strong pricing signals sufficient to catalyse the significant private sector investment in low carbon solutions.
As far as we can tell, the current proposals fall well short of ensuring carbon neutral growth from 2020.
The key missing ingredient continues to be a strengthened carbon tax and the province-wide incentive it would provide to invest in clean energy and energy efficiency.
We need multiple solutions to reduce CO2 emissions.
The carbon emission quota policy will promote the health of the new energy vehicle market.
Our project aims to produce low-carbon synthetic aviation jet fuel using renewable energy from agricultural waste and forestry biomass and captured CO2.
This is the place where we control the simulator. And now I can show you the platform that we have designed for this robot. We have a carbon fibre construction, in total the whole robot weights just 80 kilograms. We used aerospace technology in order to create the lightest possible cabin using readily available products.
In the past agriculture was focused on producing food, and forestry was focusing on something else, they were never talking to each other so sometimes their policies ended up being even contradictive. If you're really looking at sustainable development, and this is what everybody wants, we need the forests because they are essential for regulating water flows, storing carbon and preserving soils.
When the forest is logged or burned, not only does carbon absorption stop but the carbon stored in trees and other vegetation is released into the atmosphere, increasing the amount of climate-changing gases.
In terms of what is the magnitude of clean energy or lower- carbon energy infrastructure and cleaner water sanitation, etc., that will be put in place over the next 15 to 20 years ... it's somewhere in the order of $5 to $7 trillion. The question is how much of that is going to be financed through capital markets.
Carbon pricing is the cleanest way to regulate to stabilize emissions.
Aviation emissions are the fastest growing source of greenhouse emissions in the world. And their emissions are set to quadruple in the coming decade, meaning that it will take up a quarter of the remaining carbon budget in 2050.
We have now set a process in motion and there will be no U-turns with 65 states now signed up to participate from the beginning of the scheme, this agreement has achieved around 80 percent of carbon neutral growth.
We know that kelp plants take up carbon dioxide and incorporate that carbon into their plant tissues. So we're very hopeful that not only carbon but nutrients can be taken up and essentially removed from the water column.
What is important is the applicability of a study like this in helping policy makers to use more accurate fire emission factors to design policy and act to prevent further fires and greenhouse gas emissions.
A more immediate danger is runaway climate change. A rise in ocean temperature would melt the ice-caps, and cause a release of large amounts of carbon dioxide from the ocean floor. Both effects could make our climate like that of Venus, with a temperature of 250 degrees.
If humankind continues to release carbon dioxide as it does now, people living in the Middle East and North Africa will have to expect about 200 unusually hot days, according to the model projections.
The carbon fiber – which has many aerospace and defense applications – is strictly controlled, and Sun expressed a willingness to pay a premium to skirt U.S. export laws.
For the salmon we are hoping that we can reduce the amount of phytoplankton. Potentially we can also knock down sea lice. But we are also hoping that this technique can help us reduce carbon footprint and also to be able to have a cash crop of another species, or species, that we can also sell as food.
What the European Commission is asking is too big. It pushes de-industrialisation in Europe but to places where probably or most likely the CO2 emission is higher.
Our results suggest that future ocean acidification and possible effects on marine calcifying organisms will be more severe than during the PETM. Future ecosystem disruptions are likely to exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed at the PETM.
If you look over the entire Cenozoic, the last 66 million years, the only event that we know of at the moment, that has a massive carbon release, and happens over a relatively short period of time, is the PETM. We actually have to go back to relatively old periods, because in the more recent past, we don't see anything comparable to what humans are currently doing.
Now just as I believe the Paris Agreement will ultimately prove to be a turning point for our planet, I believe that history will judge today's efforts as pivotal. As the world's two largest economies and two largest emitters, our entrance into this agreement continues the momentum of Paris and should give the rest of the world confidence – whether developed or developing countries – that a low-carbon future is where the world is heading.
Removing fossil fuel subsidies would go a long way to cutting consumption. If subsidies were removed and carbon prices set properly now and taxed that would go a long way in addressing the climate change issues the world is facing.
We are continuing to apply the use of new digital and engineering technologies across the airline. The hybrid plane concept we are announcing today is both a vision of the future and a challenge to our partners and suppliers to continue to push the boundaries towards reducing our carbon emissions.
Although Africa contributes the lowest share of carbon emissions, it is the continent most susceptible to climate change. Its unique vulnerability is exacerbated by widespread poverty.
Last month in Paris world leaders reached an historic agreement that provides concrete framework for carbon emissions. This is an important first step but we're a long way off from claiming victory in the fight for our future and for the survival of our planet. The Paris agreement was a call to action but it's now up to all of us to build this progress with ingenuity and a commitment to change.
The location here in Lulea is pretty unique in that there are two completely independent power grids here, all supplied by hydroelectric power. So, the power that supplies everything that you see around you, all this equipment and this entire data centre is 100 percent clean, carbon free.
We're already a quarter to a third of the emissions of other aircrafts. But in the future, we should be going all-electric and having solar panels on the surface of the aircraft, which will make us a zero carbon aircraft, and that will truly revolutionise the emissions problems that aviation are causing at the moment.
We can solve this thing but we have to get going. It's exactly the kind of challenge that's big enough to remind us that we are all in this together.
The carbon floor price must go.
The real fix would be a minimum price of 30 euros.
We have got a big conference on this coming up at the end of the year in Paris and it's very important we get the globally-binding agreement to reduce carbon emissions. We see the European Union is not doing enough. It could do more on energy security by becoming less reliant on Russia and improving energy efficiency.
We started to take apart the old piano, that means destroying the wooden soundboard (base of the piano, under the strings). We replaced the traditional wooden soundboard panel with a revolutionary carbon-composite soundboard. So we had an old piano with a hi-tech composite soundboard inside, under the strings. It all began there, when the artist Gergely Bogányi started to play and he was very satisfied. The artist told us to develop our new piano.
The piano's voice goes up from the piano-case, but also goes down. Our piano has no bottom, the carbon-composite lets the voice go down, too, so the leg leads the sound out.
Nobody likes to waste energy, and at a time when energy bills are increasing, having appliances designed to be sparing with electricity is definitely a good thing for your household finances. Coffee is one of the many products threatened by climate change, so it's also good to know that when you're making a cup, you're doing your bit to cut down on carbon emissions too.
The beauty of renewable fuels is that there is the opportunity to use waste stream, even the waste stream of industrial plants. The carbon dioxide emitted by a number of large steel plants could very well be a source for jet fuel.
Security is the responsibility of the national member states, for their own registry. But we, of course, as market regulators, have to act here and remind the member states to take measures.
These instruments measure the flows of carbon dioxide, water and ozone, as well as other parameters, such as the total solar radiation and the part of solar spectrum that plants absorb and use for photosynthesis.
If the governments can't save the planet, business will have to save the planet.
To ensure a good rolling resistance, we need to use products that don't waste much energy. We also need to guarantee both rubber and other raw materials provide a better resistance to abrasion. So rubber is enriched with carbon blacks in the right proportions.
5% of savings in fuel consumption for each truck in fleets that may have hundreds of lorries means a huge fuel bill reduction for road transport on European roads. It also means that we can improve the carbon footprint of road transportation.
First of all we need to create a sort of a liquid, and so we're mixing 50% of our comet, that is this water ice, we're mixing it now with a little bit of liquid nitrogen. And we're using carbon black – it's finely divided carbon particles. And now we do some comet cooking.
The ocean absorbs a vast amount of the carbon dioxide that we are releasing, it just sucks it up. And it doesn't just stay in the surface layers – because the ocean is moving it gets pulled down to the depths. The problem with that is that when you dissolve carbon dioxide in water it turns it acidic. And the skeletons of the animals that form these reefs – the corals – they dissolve in acid.
COP15 will create about 40 thousand tons of C02 equivalent. We are not only counting CO2 but other greenhouse gas emissions. These greenhouse gas emissions will be offset in Bangladesh by a project where we are going to make two factories much more energy effective, by using less coal in the production. This will not only be positive for air quality in the region but reduce the CO2 significantly.
It would have a devastating effect on employment, it would cost in taxes millions and billions and in terms of jobs probably millions of jobs.
It is not possible for the Chinese leaders to tell the Chinese population that we are not going to develop. I think what the government needs to tell the Chinese population is that we are going to develop in a different way – a truly low carbon, sustainable way.
The time for a quiet evolution in our attitudes towards climate change is now over. Delaying action is not an option – we need to act together, and act quickly, if we are to stand a chance of avoiding climate change not long into the future, but within many of our own lifetimes.
We have already used two-thirds of the total amount of carbon we can burn, in order to keep warming below the crucial 2°C level. If we carry on at the current rate we will reach our limit in as little as 30 years' time – and that is without any continued growth in emission levels. The implication of no immediate action is worryingly clear – either we take a collective responsibility to make a difference, and soon, or it will be too late.
More and more people around the planet get to find out the hard way that climate change is no longer a distant threat. Just two weeks ago, floods have hit the areas of Jammu and Kashmir, but whether it is floods here, and droughts there – it's clear that climate change has arrived already.
At this moment of crisis everybody's spending huge amounts of money on their fiscal stimulus. This could be a moment when they actually say, we can't run the economy in the same way. We've got to run it on a fraction of the carbon emissions and it actually needs huge government investment.
Generally the more expensive the materials are, the more carbon dioxide they emit. But it's hard for the students to calculate the cost of materials. But they can calculate operating costs and carbon emissions while the balloon is in the air.
To protect this building more, first we'll have to protect these pillars. We'll have to clean the surface, leaving just the concrete, and fix our carbon-fibre textiles, principally at the base of the pillar. Depending on the kind of protection the engineer wants to achieve, you could use carbon fibre or glass-fibre. Both products are really flexible and thin, and can easily adapt themselves to whatever geometry of the structural element you want to protect.
We can see a peak here; that's the carbon. The second peak indicates the presence of oxygen, and the software tells us the relationship between these two readings. If it reveals a potentially volatile ratio, like here, the system has identified that the object we are examining contains explosives.
I was in the cabin and went to go outside and I capsized at that moment. I banged my head on the electric panel I think and then I saw black. Then I thought to myself, what would have happened if I had been out on deck. So I suffered post-traumatic shock for several minutes and I consulted the doctor. Other than that I suffered from a carbon monoxide intoxication and I had my butane gas tank leak in the cabin.
The US and China will build an important partnership to develop and deploy clean energy technologies designed to speed our transformation to low carbon economies. These technologies are essential both to spur sustainable economic growth in our countries and to contain the increasingly urgent problem of global climate change.
The reason why we focused on algae in the SPLASH project is that they are very productive. They use sunlight and carbon dioxide and some minerals very efficiently, and on the other hand algae they can also be grown in places where you can't grow food crops. So they do not compete with the food production and in that respect it is very important that we use algae in this project for bio-polymers.
This kind of material emits 70 percent less carbon dioxide and also uses much less non-renewable energy sources, so it is much more sustainable then the traditional plastics and also the properties are much better.
A digital, low carbon, environmentally friendly Europe, highly skilled to face the challenge of the world, is something that I believe is the vision that we have got to put forward.
Once fabricated, we have to artificially weather these replica bricks. So we expose them to salt and freeze-thaw cycles. We also expose them to sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide and we attack them with polluting microbiological agents.
Brazil has to decide what's best for the future, because now there's been an important oil discovery here, the so-called 'pre-salt oil', which is huge. I think Brazil should stick to ethanol, and there's another reason for that: climate change. The use of ethanol doesn't damage the atmosphere as much as petrol does. The carbon dioxide emissions are much lower.
My personal feeling here, for Singapore, is that we still need to do an awful lot of education and raise awareness, and that happens through a whole multitude of activities. I think there's a misconception amongst businesses that implementing a carbon management programme is going to cost a lot of money, and it doesn't, it actually saves money.
This is all carbon fibre, this is Andy's office.
Aerosol is dust, very fine particles which float in the air and which man breathes in. That is why it's bad for one's health. Organic means this aerosol is made up of chemical elements like carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
Now, as it happens, the window of action is really closing very rapidly, so we have a very short window of opportunity. If you look at the total carbon budget to ensure that temperature increase by the end of this century will not exceed two degrees Celsius, we've already used up a substantial share of this.
We generate more carbon pollution per head than any other people in the developed world.
It has a very dense atmosphere, up to 97% of carbon dioxide, very strong greenhouse effect, and the temperature down on the surface is more than 450 degrees Celcius, and the pressure is 92 bars, it's almost a hundred times what it is on Earth, so it's a very, very unpleasant place to be.
The IEA (International Energy Agency) has said that if we are not using CCS in the carbon mitigation mix, then the world will have to pay more for the decarbonization. I think they quoted about 1 trillion dollars extra.
We have to develop carbon capture and storage (CCS) if we want to stop the emissions from the burning up of fossil fuels to go up in the atmosphere. Instead we need to put them underground and keep them there for the long term.
The importance is that the federal government will now begin setting limits for the first time on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas pollutants, something the Bush administration refused for eight years to do, as the problem grew worse and worse.
Since 2005, we reduced our carbon emissions by 70%. Thanks to Ecostars, we have managed to reduce carbon by vehicules by 40 tons per year.
The air is taken in through two tubes on deck. One measures gas and the other measures particles. And then it's analysed for SO2, for NOX, and for soot. And then we have an instrument for measuring carbon monoxide, and we also measure ozone.
It's cheaper so I can get the vegetable oil from the restaurants, they don't want it so they give it to me for free. There is quite a lot of effort involved with the filtering and the conversion of the vehicle but there's a number of reasons and the environmental side is definitely one of them.
The actual content of whatever is achieved is more important than the title of the document that is produced. Why have we spent two years talking without making enough progress? I personally think it is because developed countries have not sat down to negotiate in good faith.
This is where we analyse the different chemical compounds present in the gases created underground. We use chromatography to perform those chemical analyses. A pipeline coming directly from the reactor brings the gases to this system. The computer reads the data and displays them in graphic form. So we can easily identify the different gases produced, in this case, mainly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and some pollutants, like sulphur ompounds.
The main long-lived greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have reached their highest recorded levels since the beginning of the industrial age – this, in spite of the recent economic slowdown.
We have installed nine kilometres of street(light)s: we have 280 masts placed here; we have 50 different solutions, we have ten different management systems; and we have a lot of different sensors and things out in the open area.
Conventional ropes are high-strength steel ropes. The new rope is made of carbon fibre with a high-friction coating on it to allow us to give it the right friction.
There are instruments for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ozone. These instruments have the basic function of identifying the photochemical activity of the air mass. And last but not least, there is our main aerosol instrument that measures the distribution of particles according to their different sizes.
Carbon nanotubes are carbon atoms that are arranged in a particular way, and which give this new material very particular properties, such as the capacity to conduct electricity, or mechanical strengthening in composites.
We blend this carbon nanotube powder with plastic to form these granules. Then by spinning it out we turn it into textiles. These jackets work as sensors, so for example for temperature, or as a gas sensors. Also for the mechanical strength, a bike wheel. We can make fuel pumps out of it.
If I show you this demonstrator, here we have a textile in which you can see these black fibres which are filled with carbon nanotubes. Simply flexing the post here the movement, which could be linked to a fracture, is transformed into a signal which is then detected by the operator.
We knew from the very beginning that transforming Europe in a low carbon economy is not an easy task but it is the moment to be serious, responsible and coherent with our commitments.
A spacesuit is a shell enveloping a person, providing life support. It's a sealed powered shell that enables the person to move in space. Any activity generates energy – heat – that should somehow be removed, so there is a special temperature control system in the suit. The carbon dioxide exhaled by the astronaut should be absorbed. In short, a spacesuit is a miniature spaceship that has arms and legs that you can move.
We need new tools of science, and biology represents one of the means to provide new sources of fuel by capturing carbon dioxide, new sources of food, new sources of medicine, new vaccines.
Europe needs more natural gas. It's the cleanest fossil fuel source. It emits a lot less Carbon dioxide.
We already know a number of things. Optimal water temperature is around 27 degrees and the ideal pH of the water is quite neutral. We know the optimum concentration of carbon dioxide and know we can't exceed a certain amount of oxygen. We also know what the best nutrients are to help microalgae grow healthily in the water; nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. These are the parametres we are trying to optimise further.
One of the key things we are trying to figure out is the right balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the water. Getting to know this in detail will be a big help as we develop an even more efficient recycling system.
The idea was to develop a new, compact, low-power X-ray source that would provide superior characteristics compared with existing devices. What we needed was the same functionality with fewer costs. So our suggestion was to use these new carbon nanotubes.
We've moved on from fibreglass to carbon fibre, from traditional to ceramic bearings, we now have high-tech built-in electronics. And then there's the whole vehicle strategy: the aerodynamics, the vehicle weighs less thanks to new, high-tech materials. Things have really evolved. Many of our competitors now print their own spare parts in the paddock using 3D printers, creating much lighter material.
The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol extends until December 31st, 2012. If we don't have a ratified agreement in place the next day, parts of the carbon market will collapse.
The 60% targets for cuts in carbon emission to 2050 is now looking out of-date; science says we need to go further than that.
Today Britain becomes the first country in the world to agree legally binding targets for reducing carbon emission for 2020 and then for 2050.
The advantage is definitely that it is more environmentally friendly. A diesel-driven ship of this size will emit a lot of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and other particles that are harmful to humans. Here we have control over the whole electricity supply as we are part-owners of a wind power station, so we have control from propeller to propeller.
On the nuclear question, the Commission remains agnostic. What's important is to move towards weaning the economy off carbon fuels – to make it less and less dependent.
If the atmosphere is pure ammonia it might be tough. If it's conventional gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, that sort of thing, then there is every bit of reason to think that life as we know it could exist there.
At this moment we are facing three inter related crises in the world, the climate crisis, the economic crisis and the energy security concerns that have been factors in wars and political and military tensions. There is a common thread linking all of these threes crises, it is our absurd overdependence on carbon based fuels.
We agreed that the actions we take to achieve our reductions must be measurable, reportable and verifiable. And we agreed to establish at the earliest possible date a peak year after which overall global emissions will start falling. These are all very significant steps forward in addressing this challenge.